Lethbridge, K. (2006). Educators can use the empowerment structures to help students, and students can use them to gain access for assistance with their learning. The structure of power involves three sources: resources (supplies, equipment, money, and time to achieve organizational goals), information (knowledge and expertise required to do one’s job well), and support (regular feedback, guidance, advice, and opinions from formal and informal networks) (Kanter, 1977). These are battles where … Currently, no studies exist that examine empowerment and reflective thinking together in the context of nursing education. The scheme was outlined and a description of the four levels of reflective thinking provided, with examples of how the levels may be portrayed in written work. The current review was conducted to contribute meaningfully to nursing education knowledge and, specifically, knowledge related to the concepts of structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking. (2008). nƒc\Q1¢Ô-…Êþë>vx˜ ¾k ¡¾ã‡ŽJ|]»»¸¾sHƒ§ØÉ)÷ŒmùõåÍmEZymysàç^s³%Ießúí§›ŸfsZª$9;í6§‰#yó?”Đ9ÊÅ"2#ŠY"¢ÓA3j%~áqDÙ;5ÈfßÚ]é¯Îž3‡eü†ÓÛ¼Ï~(D7ÛtØ겘•v86„åÁaïQš³æjî\abÑKԔ~žã¤Æßzèße‚‹>ŒK¸tq•ïbò³zµ«\ã“?#PÒ³xb5Û3ÊÜ쌋ٰvú6¬Ø¼HÉ1G. Structural empowerment In her theory of Structural Power in Organizations, Kanter (1979) posits that empowering workplaces are those that provide employees with access to informa- tion, support, resources and opportunity so that they will be able to do their job to the best of their ability. (Eds.). ×äšÊ û‘À0œ*±D&@¤¥Æ,Q .i±CÏcè‚Q®–€˜7T+ÐFø¯äD62ëÚsE6"ëÎmI66{!‚gùêÿðYÃ3ÙäÙqKŠVّÉžˆ=ö.,V¸Zà*G¼C°n‚Ç>ìýÂáŒÏÖã3wºˆî2-± fD26’ )e´Ê©]’'@¤¢_R$@§|ga5hf©QJh]ŸÊ² Õ}„×2TÔµ3¹•9æVNaÒÎĺW 9†¤lA-¿¤ÙÙ³ëÎYτ®s5Ñt (1995) and Wong et al. Students who access empowerment structures and experience personal empowerment may be more willing to use reflective actions and question the what, how, and why of their learning experiences. Determining the level of reflective thinking from students’ written journals using a coding scheme based on the work of Mezirow. The Reflection Questionnaire contains four scales representing progressively higher levels of reflective thinking. See Table 2 for a chronological summary of reflection studies in nursing education. (2002). %PDF-1.5 Throughout the discussion, strategies to foster empowering learning environments are suggested. Harris, M. (2005). This is important information for nurse educators because it provides insight into the link between how students’ levels of reflective thinking fit with knowledge assimilation and construction. The nonreflective and reflective action components of the theory were the focus of reflective thinking in this review. Jensen and Joy (2005) suggested that students’ learning environments must provide opportunities that prompt higher levels of thinking and include critical discussions examining situations from multiple points of view. Psychological empowerment as a multidimensional construct: A test of construct validity. According to Kanter (1993) power is defined as the “ability to mobilize resources to get things done” (p. 210). (2001). Students who perceive meaning in their learning sense a fit between what they need from the institution, curricula, and educators, and their personal beliefs, values, and behaviors about learning. Atkins, S. & Murphy, K. (1993). In Cooper, C.L. (Ed.). For example, including students in decision making about course objectives, facilitation of classes, and evaluations is a strategy to increase students’ access to formal and informal power networks through a collaborative approach to learning. Reflective learning: Key to learning from experience. Making meaning through reflection. Educational climate for caring and psychological empowerment were related to self-efficacy for professional nursing practice behaviors (β = 0.29, p = 0.05 and β = 0.31, p = 0.04, respectively), making evident that students preparing to enter the workforce experience psychological empowerment as part of their development of professional practice behaviors. In three quantitative studies, relationships between empowerment and professional nursing practice in clinical environments were examined. Examine relationship between nursing students’ structural and psychological empowerment, in problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional lecture learning (CLL) programs. Ð=â‹ÿ²o˚ A‰œèœÐ•=ñíØó3î¿Rœ2;=9íT9¬¢è¾Ÿ îüÑ2X¶Ÿ|:†cÇ®ŸÃ;.Ï}Üðô‚~‡ o‰.¡íqGò!ôG‡¥úJÓ Áá~\íN0¯Å²‹©«éxc"'0^.A!õˆ²#&;¶Xçý­ÝKÓûä朑Öz/&0igbb)óL–rhÔþ¦uríÉó úÔJ!10ÏAmÜ¡òy÷µÉ=ANûbÉ55¤)¨ê£„ Ãé‡*òë-Ûþ˜;\ Wong, F.K.Y., Loke, A.Y., Wong, M., Tse, H., Kan, E. & Kember, D. (1997). A structurally empowering learning environment may provide the context for experiencing the affective and cognitive state of psychological empowerment as a response to the conditions or context of the learning environment, leading to the mental space where reflective thinking can occur. & Joy, C. (2005). Brancato, V.C. Three theories had a good conceptual fit and prior application in nursing education research: Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory because her conceptualizations of empowerment focus on contextual, environmental aspects, and Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) theory, which focuses on personal experiences of the concept; both were considered to be important to provide a comprehensive understanding (Spreitzer, 2008). (1990). Jarvie (2004) found a positive, although not statistically significant (r = 0.29, p = 0.07), relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy for professional practice competencies. Dr. Lethbridge is Postdoctoral Fellow, Dr. Andrusyszyn is Director and Professor, Dr. Iwasiw is Professor, Dr. Laschinger is Distinguished University Professor and Nursing Research Chair in Human Resource Optimization, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, and Dr. Fernando is Professor Emeritus, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. On qualitative differences in learning, outcome and process I. Mezirow, J. Kanter’s Structural Empowerment Theory [ TOP] Kanter (1993) expresses the characteristics of a situation can either constrain or encourage optimal job performance, regardless of personal tendencies or predispositions. Based on study results, Siu et al. The sample size (N = 27) was small. Quinn, R.E. (1996). Only recently has a theoretically derived protocol been published to provide guidance in determining the level of reflection in students’ writing, in particular journals and scholarly articles (Kember et al., 2008). The Structural Theory of Organizational Empowerment really is very relevant to the nursing profession. 4 0 obj (1991a). Perspective transformation: How learning leads to change. Students’ perceptions of their reflective writing experience. Overall, from this integrative literature review, there is evidence to support that (a) accessing empowerment structures as described in Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory is applicable in nursing education environments (Avolio, 1998; Jarvie, 2004; Ledwell et al., 2006; Livsey, 2009; Sinclair, 2000; Siu et al., 2005); (b) students perceive psychological empowerment in learning environments (Almost & Anthony, 2003; Siu et al., 2005); (c) there is a positive relationship between structural and psychological empowerment in classroom learning environments (Siu et al., 2005); and (d) reflective thinking is an important concept in baccalaureate education (Chirema, 2007; Green, 2002; Jensen & Joy, 2005; Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Leung & Kember, 2003; Richardson & Maltby, 1995; Smith & Jack, 2005; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). The protocol has yet to be used with nursing students, and further testing is invited (Kember et al., 2008). The articles prior to January 2013 are part of the back file collection and are not available with a current paid subscription. (2008). The use of this self-report questionnaire in a teaching-learning environment is intended to help educators understand which levels of reflective thinking students perceive they are using and determine whether teaching-learning strategies in a course promote reflective thinking in students, assist them to move from lower to higher levels of reflective thought, or both (Kember et al., 2000). provided examples of educational strategies using tenets of Kanter’s (. Kanters theory that suggests that empowering working conditions increase feelings. Although personal characteristics play a role in employees' workplace behaviors, Kanter maintains that situational conditions can constrain optimal job performance, regardless of positive personal tendencies or predispositions and, therefore, lower organizational productivity. *§f,X¤=ˆ©¸0šæ…\ÏÇv"¢‚ƒ£ð=°ôCË{•Gåë{$ÐdÚ±˜¨ Reflection as empowerment? Introducing… The new quality assurance program. and rapid staff turnover.12 The theory of structural empowerment is a good framework to explain concepts related to negative workplace behaviors according to Kanter.5 According to Kanter… Wansbrough, G. (1996). <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> (2000). Aim: To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Management theory. & Nason, S.W. Feedback from faculty (formal) and peers (informal) may provide students with the context in which to explore their learning experiences (meaning), build confidence in participating in this process (competence), and, in doing so, choose (self-determination) to use more reflective actions, resulting in greater achievements in their learning (impact). Kember, D., Leung, D.Y.P., Jones, A., Loke, A.Y., McKay, J. & Fry, R. (1975). Students in the PBL program had significantly higher perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment in their learning than those in the CLL program after controlling for exposure to learning strategies (small group, self-directed work, teacher as facilitator, lecture). According to Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment, there is a need to focus on structures rather than qualities of an individual. Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Three theories had a good conceptual fit and prior application in nursing education research: Kanter’s theory because her conceptualizations of empowerment … Fostering an empowering learning environment through access to formal and informal power networks and empowerment structures (Kanter, 1977, 1993), enabling the dimensions of psychological empowerment (Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b), and engaging students as reflective thinkers, who thoughtfully question and evaluate their practice (Mezirow, 1991a), are ways nurse educators can work with students to prepare them to respond to the changes and uncertainties of professional nursing practice (Ireland, 2008). A longitudinal analysis of the impact of workplace empowerment on staff nurses’ work satisfaction. By preparing students to be empowered, reflective professionals, it is proposed that they will be more effective in their academic and future practice work. Chirema (2007) conducted individual interviews to learn post-RN students’ views on reflection and their experiences of writing a reflective journal. Students who access empowerment structures may also experience psychological empowerment (Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b), which is shaped by the value students attribute to their learning (Spreitzer, 2008). <>>> Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: Expanding Kanter’s Model. Question 2: Is there a conceptual link among structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking relevant to nursing education? The critique of premises or presuppositions pertains to problem posing as distinct from problem solving. In Ontario, Canada, reflective practice is a requirement to maintain registration with the nursing regulatory body (Gill, 2009; Wansbrough, 1996). Students’ self-efficacy for professional practice and frequency of use of professional practice behaviors during their integrative practicum were positively related (. & Francis, D. (2001). & Vingilis, E. (2005). The relationship between approaches to learning and reflection upon practice. First described in 1977, the theory of structural empowerment posits that certain factors in a work environment can enable or block employees’ ability to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. & Jack, K. (2005). Learning experiences described by students were consistent with Kanter’s theoretical constructs, and examples are presented in Table 1. Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Manual searches of articles’ reference lists were also completed. & Kember, D. (2003). Leyshon, S. (2002). In this study, Kanter's theory of structural power in organizations was used to examine physical therapists' perceptions of empowerment in a large Canadian urban teaching hospital. In examining the conceptual links, it is apparent that all three are required for learning and nursing practice. Development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Suggested in their data was that students may be engaging in higher levels of reflection, but not documenting the details of their thought processes. Strategies proposed in Kanter’s empowerment theory have the potential to reduce job strain and improve employee work satisfaction and performance in current restructured healthcare settings. Finally, the link among the three concepts in baccalaureate nursing education is addressed. Testing the proposed model will provide evidence to determine whether promoting empowering learning environments assists students toward effective achievement of reflective thinking and to support implementation of teaching-learning strategies and curricula to foster these concepts together during BScN education. Roberts, S.J. Kanter’s (1993) theory of structural empowerment is an organisa- tional theory that focuses on contextual factors within organisa- tions that promote healthy working environments for individuals, Students perceive psychological empowerment in their learning environments (Almost & Anthony, 2003; Siu et al., 2005), and further exploration of these experiences is required. Smith, A. In response to question 2 regarding determining a conceptual link between structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking, it is apparent that all are required for learning and nursing practice. To access the article, you may purchase it or purchase the complete back file collection here, Kristen Lethbridge, PhD, RN; Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn, EdD, RN; Carroll Iwasiw, EdD, RN; Heather K. S. Laschinger, PhD, RN, FAAN, FCAHS; Rajulton Fernando, PhD. (1995a). Cotton, A.H. (2001). In her theory of structural empowerment, Kanter 5 described the lines of power in an organization as either serving as a source of constraint or encouragement towards optimal job performance. There is substantial evidence to support Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory of Structural Power in Organizations in nursing work environments (e.g., Laschinger, 1996, 2008; Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, & Wilk, 2001, 2004; Laschinger & Leiter, 2006; Laschinger & Wong, 1999), but its application to nursing education environments is not well developed. A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of ‘reflection’ in nursing practice and education. Most research examining students’ reflective thinking is based on nurse educators’ reading and evaluating students’ journal submissions (Chirema, 2007; Jensen & Joy, 2005; Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2008; Richardson & Maltby, 1995; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). & Velthouse, B.A. A critique and reappraisal of the reasons for, and consequences of, prior knowledge and actions are also part of premise reflection. The impact of structural empowerment on nurses’ professional work Nursing students may then transfer these skills and experiences to their future practice. Similarly, Siu et al. A newer social work perspective that I would like to discuss in this paper is the empowerment approach. Taking stock: A review of more than twenty years of research on empowerment at work. Journal writing was a private activity, a time for contemplation, whereas dialogue allowed students to question one another, share ideas, gain further insights, and, in some cases, change perspectives. By engaging in reflective thinking about their learning experiences, students may be more likely to develop more consistent use of reflective actions in their learning, such as using research evidence in practice; taking time to link theory with practice; critically evaluating, questioning, dialoguing about, and problem solving clinical situations and practices; enacting changes in their practice and thinking; debating implications of their actions in practice; taking risks to challenge previously held values, beliefs, and assumptions; and integrating new learning with prior knowledge (Green, 2002; Harris, 2005; Jensen & Joy, 2005; Johns, 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Luechauer & Shulman, 2002; Smith & Jack, 2005). (Eds.). & Chandler, G. (1996). Kanter 9,10 argues that social structures in the workplace influence employee attitudes and behaviors to a greater extent than inherent personality predispositions. and better health outcomes. Structural empowerment and professional nursing practice behaviors of baccalaureate nursing students in clinical learning environments. These reflect personal, not structural, aspects of a learning environment and perhaps are a better fit with Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) description of psychological empowerment. (1996). A meaning perspective is a frame of reference (Mezirow, 2000), described as the knowledge, feelings, assumptions, attitudes, values, and beliefs that shape how the world is perceived and interpreted (Mezirow, 1991b). Using theory-based, objective tools to measure students’ perceptions of their engagement in reflective thinking, and to assess levels of reflection in their written work, assists in providing evidence to support developing the reflective thinking process with students (Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2008; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). Reflection: A flawed strategy for the nursing profession. (Ed.). The four levels were the same as those derived in the development of the Reflection Questionnaire (Kember et al., 2000). Empowerment and increased autonomy in the work setting often are described as mechanisms to achieve these goals. Students, who learn to mobilize empowerment structures and experience the competence and self-determination to advance their learning, may then transfer this process to future work environments (Siu et al., 2005). The conceptual links and proposed model described in this article provide the foundation for building a body of evidence to support or refute this contention. (2000) developed a theory-based, self-report questionnaire based on Mezirow’s (1981, 1991c) conceptualizations of reflective thinking. In Mezirow, J. The integrative review: Updated methodology. Regardless of program, student perceptions of structural empowerment were positively related to psychological empowerment (Siu et al., 2005), providing support for a holistic view of empowerment, including both contextual and personal aspects (Spreitzer, 2008). Siu, H., Laschinger, H.K.S. Research evidence to support teaching-learning environments and activities that are successful in the development of empowered, reflective professionals is critical. Structural empowerment is a concept developed by Kanter (1993). Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) conceptualization of psychological empowerment is grounded in business organization theory and research. Themes fit with constructs of Kanter’s theory: opportunity was reflected in descriptions of students’ need for occasions to engage in meaningful learning activities; information centered on patient care, unit functioning, instructor expectations, and individual performance; support came mainly from instructors, but also peers, other health professionals in the clinical area, and patients; and resources referred primarily to assistance with patient care. Mezirow, J. Is journaling empowering? If the model is supported, the influence of empowering learning environments on other learning outcomes could also be assessed. In summary and in response to question 1 (probing the current state of research literature regarding structural empowerment), there has been limited use of Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory in nursing education environments, although study results are positive. Kanter’s ( 1993) theory of structural empowerment includes a discussion of organizational behavior and empowerment. Siu et al. Marton, F. & Säljö, R. (1976). endobj Hannigan, B. Although the first trial was limited in size and scope, it demonstrated that a clearly described scheme can provide educators with a reliable method to assess the level of reflective thinking in students’ written work. Laschinger, H.K.S. & Iwasiw, C. (2006). Laschinger, H.K.S., Finegan, J., Shamian, J. In response to question 1 regarding literature examining the concept of psychological empowerment with nursing student samples, two studies were applicable. He proposed a theory that focuses on the structures within the organization rather than the individual own qualities. Leung, D.Y.P. Nursing classroom and practice environments provide ideal opportunities for learning about, and engaging in, empowering behaviors and reflective thinking, where teachers can be role models, providing guidance and feedback (Brancato, 2007; Harris, 2005; Hokanson Hawks, 1992; Luechauer & Shulman, 2002; Middlemiss & Van Neste-Kenny, 1994). She is credited with the theory of structural empowerment that focuses on the organizational structure as having more importance than the individual’s own qualities. Kanter purported that structural factors within the workplace have a greater influence on employee work attitudes and behaviors than their own personal predispositions. of psychological empowerment in nurses, resulting in greater use of patient. Students’ perceptions of preceptors’ use of empowering teaching behaviors and self-efficacy for professional nursing practice accounted for 27% of the variance in frequency of use of professional nursing practice behaviors, R2 = 0.27, F(2, 36) = 6.58, p = 0.004, in Avolio’s (1998) work. Theory-based, objective research efforts to measure the concept are also limited (Atkins & Murphy, 1993; Carroll et al., 2002; Cotton, 2001; Hannigan, 2001; Jones, 1995; Mackintosh, 1998; Usher et al., 2001). Boudrias, J.-S., Gaudreau, P. & Laschinger, H.K.S. Access to empowerment structures is important for students to perceive themselves as empowered. (1991b). All authors (Avolio, 1998; Jarvie, 2004; Ledwell et al., 2006; Livsey, 2009; Sinclair, 2000; Siu et al., 2005) concluded that Kanter’s theory is pertinent. Reflective practice: A meaningful task for students. Jones, P.R. A discrepancy between prior knowledge and the current situation may lead to perspective transformation, a process that occurs after experiencing a sudden insight, or a series of unexpected events, which challenge currently held meaning perspectives. & Wong, C. (1999). (2007). Based on the proposed theoretical model (Figure), studies can be planned and implemented, and results will help educators build evidence for curricula to educate students to become empowered, reflective professionals. The four empowerment structures are: access to resources needed for one’s work In Mezirow, J. (1999). Unpublished master’s theses and doctoral dissertations were included if they fit the first two criteria. Evidence from one study suggests students’ ability to engage in reflective thinking may be enhanced through information gained from group dialogue with faculty (formal) and peers (informal) and time (resource) for personal reflections (Wong et al., 1997). <> Students perceived themselves to be moderately psychologically empowered (mean = 4.02, SD = 0.36) on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Methods to evaluate students’ perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment in their learning environment and their engagement in reflective thinking are necessary to ensure that students are graduating with the professional knowledge, resources, abilities, and skills they require. A theoretical approach to studying work empowerment in nursing: A review of studies testing Kanter’s theory of structural power in organizations. Green, C.A. Generating a body of theoretically derived research is important to advance the development of reflective thinking in learning and practice (Lethbridge, 2006). Individuals with high levels of access to opportunity (potential for organizational advancement and the development of knowledge and skills) are motivated to succeed, to be productive, and to strive toward professional growth, and they are committed to and active in organizational innovation and change. Powerful women in the clinical environment conducted individual interviews to learn post-RN students ’ journals! Respectable ( Table 2 for a chronological summary of empowerment in nursing education frequency of use of journals. Research on empowerment at work a discussion of Organizational empowerment really is relevant... Of burnout/engagement significant relationship between approaches to learning and instruction as the ability to fully as... 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