Terminology Definition Baking Science Tips & Tricks Baked Goods Bain-marie A water bath prevents delicate desserts from curdling, cracking or overcooking as they bake. Malted barley is a type of barley that has been soaked, sprouted, dried, and then ground into a powder. It can be purchased or made at home. Starch retrogradation is a fancy way to say bread is going stale. For bakers, it’s always a balancing act between extensibility and elasticity; this balance comes from the glutenin protein. Elasticity is a term used by bread bakers when describing the ability of the dough to spring back after being stretched. These are mostly used by commercial bakeries and larger cottage bakers. As a baker, you have to make a judgment call when your fermentation is done. Some come with linen liners which work very well to keep your dough from sticking. Flours with higher ash counts have more bran in the flour. This bacteria enjoys warmer temperatures during fermentation. Is there something you can’t find? This is a partially hydrated block of yeast that must be kept refrigerated and lasts only two to three weeks. This is a term applied to different cereal grains that have undergone little change over the years. You just clipped your first slide! The world of sourdough baking is both an art and science and if you're just getting started, you might find yourself facing fancy loaves and foreign terminology. See also Ancient Grains, Heirloom Grains, and Heritage Grains. Clear flour is milled from the outer periphery of the endosperm producing a white flour with almost no additional flavor. Enzymes become active once hydrated, and these can have either beneficial or detrimental effects during an autolyse, depending on numerous factors. The combination of the heat in your oven and the sugars in dough contributes to caramelization, the rich brown set of colors on the crust and ear of a loaf of bread. Hygroscopic is a chemical term that normally refers to the ability of ingredients like salt and sugar to attract and hold moisture in your dough. Pastry flour is normally around .45% ash. This is a French term for a loaf that’s shaped like a baguette, but is both shorter and wider than a standard baguette. If a bread recipe calls for fresh yeast then 40% of that weight would be used if you want to substitute it for active dry yeast. This is normally mentioned as a percentage of water in relation to the total weight of the flour in your bread formula or recipe. Neither style of crumb is better than another. Almond Paste: A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar. This is a French country bread made with a flat disk on top. Hydration This is normally mentioned as a percentage of water in relation to the total weight of the flour in your bread formula or recipe. Natural oxidation of flour results from allowing the flour to age after mixing. Gluten is the combination of proteins in dough that contribute to dough elasticity, extensibility, and strength. It can be done with a … Proper scoring allows the baker to control exactly where his or her breads will open or bloom. Most flours that you purchase already have malt added to them. In fact, baking is often considered a science with a language of its own. Boule - French for “ball”; a round loaf. Bakery terminology 1. Also known as a hot water bath, it is usually used to melt chocolate and butter gently and gradually over a pot of simmering water. It should be dissolved (See Blooming) in water before using. When present in large enough concentrations, these two acids provide the tanginess, or sourness, in sourdough bread. These are ancient pre-hybridized varieties or races of wheat, barley, oats, rye, and other grains that flourished long, long ago in areas or lands throughout the world where they adapted to local environmental conditions. See also Durum. There are different ways to score a loaf of bread to create different types of ears. When making bread, the metabolic actions of the yeast cells convert sugars to carbon dioxide and alcohol (during fermentation). We’ll send out emails with new products and promotions — as well as recipes and baking tips. This bacteria enjoys colder temperatures during fermentation. Your email address will not be published. This applies to both the bulk fermentation and the final proof. It is also known as farro or piccolo farro. Designed by GaliDesigns. This type of mixer has an arm that enters the bowl vertically from the top, and the bowl itself can rotate or remain stationary. See also Lactobacilli. Every flour absorbs different amounts of water which determines how wet or dry your final dough is. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. Flour with good starch quality is a must when making high hydration breads. Elasticity is a good thing contributing to volume and structure. Sometimes the cloth is removed 5 minutes before shaping to let the top of the dough dry out just a bit which helps keep it from sticking. This bacteria produces both lactic and acetic acid in your dough. Pate fermente - some old dough from the last batch used to add some complexity of flavor to a new dough. This is a rich Italian enriched bread that’s traditionally eaten during the Christmas holidays. This is a coarse ground durum wheat that’s most often used when making pasta. A boule is a round-shaped loaf of bread that’s similar in shape to an upside-down bowl. These cookies do not store any personal information. They normally have a small More and more bakers use a 50/50 combination of rice flour and bread flour. Baking Terms All-purpose flour: A wheat flour with a medium gluten content of around 12 percent or so. This normally occurs after milling to interfere with the aggregation of gluten proteins into a strong network. Degassing is the expulsion of carbon dioxide from fermenting dough during the dividing or shaping stages, also referred to as punching or a punch down. Cloverleaf rolls are a type of dinner roll made by placing three small dough balls next to each other so that they bake together and look like a cloverleaf when done. Bread-making process developed by the British Baking Industries Research Association, Chorbywood, UK, which uses high-speed mixing for the optimal development of dough, thereby eliminating CO2 Carbon dioxide; the gas released from leavening reactions and fermentation that creates bubbles and space in a … If you are new to sourdough baking, knowing baking terminology will help you to understand the methodology behind the techniques. See also. Lamination is most often used when making croissants and puff pastry. In pastry making, lamination is the process of folding and rolling butter into dough to create alternating layers of dough and butter. This is the temperature often specified in a recipe for the dough immediately after mixing. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. This is a technique used by bakers to check the gluten development in dough. Oct 21, 2019 - It's not always easy to understand the sourdough baking terminology. If recipe calls for fresh yeast, use 33% of instant yeast. See also. Amylases: Enzymes in flour that breaks down starch to sugar. Some flours have more gliadin proteins and promote better extensibility in bread dough. When it combines with glutenin, gluten is formed. It also absorbs excess moisture in the dough. Luckily, there’s no need to fear! These can be many things including cheeses, cured meats, dried fruits, nuts, and various sweet ingredients. Baking Terms and Techniques Teacher’s note: The labs refer to these terms and techniques. The shortening effect occurs when shortening ingredients are added to dough and increase the volume of the final loaf of dough or pastry. It is also known as the first fermentation or bulk fermentation. We have seen research that shows results in both directions, so it’s best to experiment! Hydration is the ratio of water to flour in bread dough. An enzyme that’s found in yeast that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol. These are ingredients often added by commercial bakers to improve processing and the quality of the final loaf of bread. Bread flours normally have .55%-.80% ash. It is prized in the world of bread baking both in terms of shape, size, and color. A fork mixer a style of mixer used for making dough. Let us know! Care is taken not to cause the gluten to tear. They’re often used when making baguettes and demi-baguettes. It’s similar to the extraction rate, but it is not synonymous. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. It’s also the bacteria that helps ferment things like yogurt and kimchi. It’s more accurate for a baker to refer to dough as being on a scale from dry to wet to really wet. Water causes the gluten proteins to be broken down into glutenins (elasticity) and gliadins (extensibility). Enriched doughs are doughs that contain enriching ingredients. The bowl may or may not rotate. From the different types of yeast, to definitions of words you’ve never heard before, here are the bread-baking terms you need to know: Active dry yeast: Small dehydrated granules of dried yeast. Fermentation happens when your yeast converts sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol, and other organic acids. A young levain consists of adding levain to your dough somewhat early in its growth cycle. Pumpernickel is a coarse flour ground from a rye berry. It does not require blooming. This is the process of rehydrating commercial yeast. This is a term used in food products that do not contain any gluten. This is a process where the flour and liquids are heated to a paste and added to the final dough. This is a culture of microorganisms made by mixing flour and water and then fermenting it. St. Lucia Saffron Buns | Lussekatter #BBB, Einkorn Potato Focaccine Make Great Snacking Bread. It’s prized by some bakers because it best mimics how dough is mixed by hand. A lame (pronounced LAHM) is a tool used by bakers to score bread. The […] Used primarily to transfer baguettes and demi-baguettes. It contributes a tremendous amount of flavor to your flour. There are many shapes and sizes of lames that hold razor blades straight or with a slight curve. It is considered one of the first grains ever cultivated. It is also called an oblique or diving arm mixer. So, before you attempt to become the next master home baker, get yourself familiarised with some of the terminology in the world of baking. These ingredients include fats and sugars (e.g. Absorption is the percentage of the flour’s weight that it can absorb in water before becoming saturated and eventually breaking down. baking and cookie sheets – Cookie sheets re rimless, flat metal sheets, perfectly designed for placing rows of cookies. The bread made from pumpernickel flour is often referred to as pumpernickel bread. Brotform is the German term for banneton. It’s often added to dough to assist in breaking down starches into sugars that are eaten by yeast bacteria. It breaks down quickly so that it’s not good in high hydration doughs. Peels are what bread bakers and pizza makers use to load and unload dough from an oven. Even within a type of wheat, the protein levels will be different depending on where that particular species of wheat was grown. Crumb – the interior of the finished bread loaf, often characterized by holes and softness. The actual gluten proteins account for 75%-85% of the flour’s protein percentage. This number refers to the percentage of the bran and germ of flour that’s removed/extracted. It gives the gluten network time to relax a bit after being handled. There are the whole kernels from a stalk of wheat that are cleaned and dried before being milled into flour. This is a large loaf of French bread that’s normally made with a sourdough starter. Although it is often decorative, it helps the dough expand properly during baking. This is the flour scattered on a bench or counter during shaping to keep the dough from sticking. In Open Crumb Mastery, author Trevor Wilson describes many desirable styles of crumb that a baker can make depending on what the baker wants to achieve. The French use ash count to label their flours. Autolyse: In bread baking, combining the flour and water before adding other ingredients and before kneading. It increases dough elasticity and volume. Mills and home millers pass flour through a sieve to remove the bran. Crust – the exterior of the finished bread loaf. This is the process of getting oxygen into your dough during mixing. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. Glossary of Bread Baking Terms Autolyze: Rest period early in dough-making cycle that allows gluten proteins to bond. It is often used interchangeably with sourdough starter. Too little starch damage stunts fermentation, since the yeast and LAB have less sugars available. In bread baking, this refers to the adding of water to flour and mixing it together until no dry flour can be found. For bread, I remove the parchment paper about two-thirds of the way through baking so that the bottom will have a nice bakery-like crust on the bottom. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. When related to bread making, laminating refers to stretching your dough out very thinly on your bench or counter. This gives yeast more sugars to eat. Here you will find an explanation of 20 sourdough baking terms. We wish we had. Acetic acid is the primary flavor component in vinegar (typically 4% acetic acid). Here’s a great video showing how it’s done. Baking blind is ideal if you have a no-cook filling, a filling that needs little cooking or is cooked at a low temperature. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. This is that step in the making of bread that hydrates the flour at the very beginning. Alveoli: It’s another word for the gas pockets in the crumb. This is the common term used to refer to a sourdough culture. This is a chemical reaction that happens in the oven during bread baking that creates the browning on your crust. This is the most common strain of yeast that’s found in bread baking. The total flour is always considered 100%, and every other ingredient is a percentage based on its weight versus the weight of the total flour. This is the method of leavening dough solely with commercial yeast and no preferments. Just don’t. This refers to the process of refrigerating dough to slow down the fermentation. Desem is a naturally leavened whole wheat bread originating in Belgium. Pentosan is a gum that’s found in cereals that absorbs lots of water. Aerate. This refers to dough that has a high percentage of water in relation to the total amount of flour in a recipe. Biga is a preferment usually made with flour, water, and a small amount of yeast. When it’s well developed, it traps the gases that are needed to give your loaf good structure and volume. It gives your bread a rich and nutty flavor. Open refers to an airy crumb with lots of alveoli and closed refers to a more dense crumb. Good oven spring is prized by all bread bakers. Be the first to know! Some bakers also include some commercial yeast even when making sourdough bread. The water can be added back towards the end of mixing or it can be added slowly during bulk fermentation when the baker folds their dough. Large amounts are found in rye. This is a French bread that’s similar to a baguette but smaller. It has a rich amber color and imparts color and flavor to your loaf of bread. To incorporate air into something, usually a batter. Mills and home millers pass flour through a sieve to remove the bran. Like rye, it has a low gluten content, so it’s often mixed with wheat flours in bread. This is the term used to describe dough after the flour and water are mixed together. This type of wheat is most often used when making pasta and couscous. This is an autoimmune disease that affects a small percentage of the population. It’s a popular type of mixer in bakeries because it works well for bread and pastries doughs along with batters and pastry creams. Baked Goods that are Made with Batters: Muffins, quick loaf breads, cakes, cupcakes, brownies 3. It is also sometimes called farro. Since it’s an Italian term for a preferment, it’s often found in recipes for Italian breads. Flour can be artificially oxidized with chemicals so that the miller does not have to age the flour. This refers to the ability of the starch in flour to absorb water without breaking down. Ash: Ash content is the content of minerals in flour. It’s a hard variety of spring wheat. It also produces some carbon dioxide during fermentation which contributes to the rise in your dough. It’s normally a low hydration / stiff dough. Bain-marie. But we’re too busy baking! For bakers, it’s always a balancing act between extensibility and elasticity; this balance comes from the gliadin protein. There are tools for this, and it can also be done with a fork or a skewer. Bulk fermentation is the fermentation step that begins immediately after mixing. This is the little lip of crust that pulls away from the rest of the crust along the score line made by the baker. In bread making, chef refers to that portion of starter that’s used to propagate the starter and not leaven a loaf of bread. Northfield, IL USAhello@challengerbreadware.com+1.844.732.5273. It’s really a loose term since different flours especially fresh milled whole grain flours soak up different amounts of water. White flour is normally around 72% extraction, whereas whole wheat is 100% extraction. Extraction is also known as sifting. Baking Glossary and Guide Allumette: Any of various puff pastry items made in thin sticks or strips (French word for "matchstick"). This is the name for the holes in the crumb. Near its peak ripeness (peak volume), the sourdough culture will have a moderate amount of these acids and will taste moderately sour. This flour milled from the entire endosperm, and it’s not broken down into clear or patent flour. The property of flour to hold and absorb moisture. Tips for Making a Batter: Take care not to over-mix batters or too much gluten wi… We’ve designed The Bakers’ Glossary with common baking terms, making it easy for you to jump in and out, complementing your baking projects and baking curiosity. A coil fold is a method used to bring strength and structure to dough during bulk fermentation. It has a high level of protein but doesn’t form gluten as well. Banneton: Round or oblong basket used to give bread shape as it proofs (also used to prevent loaves from sticking to one another). A landbrot is a German country round bread normally made with both wheat and rye. In bread baking, garnishes are the ingredients that are applied to the outside of the dough. A lame is used to score (also called slashing or docking) bread just before the bread is placed in the oven. This is the process that contributes to the staling of bread. These are most often found in doughs that use preferments and sourdough cultures. These are the carbohydrates found in cereal grains and makeup about 72% of the whole kernel. Spring wheats generally have a higher protein level than winter wheats and normally fall in the 12%-14% range. For example, a recipe with 300 g of water and 500 g would be 60% hydration (300/500). It is also called a fork or diving arm mixer. A low number denotes reduced milling quality. Amylase is an enzyme present in cereal grains that breaks down starches into sugars. But don't let that fool you! It has two arms that enter the mixing bowl at an oblique angle and rotate as the mixing bowl spins. The thinner the baker can get the dough, the more developed the gluten is. You may wish to pro-vide each student with this glossary as a reference. Bassinage is a French word used by bakers when they hold back some of the water in their recipe to be added later in the process. It translates to. If you get flour with a falling number above 350, then a baker has to compensate for the reduced amount of enzymatic activity usually by adding sugar, malt syrup, or something to help for the low enzymatic activity. These are dough additives used in the oxidation of flour. A poolish is a type of preferment that is made with equal amounts of flour and water (100% hydration) along with a small amount of yeast. Lactic acid is the primary source of the tangy flavor in yogurt or buttermilk (yogurt has typically 0.9% lactic acid, buttermilk has 3%-4%, regular milk has about 0.17%). High ash content increases baking qualities. Water creates a barrier between the dessert and the direct As a verb, it means to change the total yield of a recipe. It’s prized by some bakers because it best mimics how dough is mixed by hand. This is the time after the dough has been preshaped and before it is shaped. This is a naturally occurring acid found in wheat bran, and it interferes with our ability as humans to process calcium and iron. Autolyse: Autolyse is a fancy word for letting the dough rest for a while. In baking, this refers to old varieties of wheat that are being brought back by farmers. Semolina is often used for dusting peels and towels that are used to wrap up pasta dough. An oblique mixer is a style of mixer used for making dough. This is mainly the bran and germ that’s removed during flour milling. Hydration ( 300/500 ) better extensibility in bread recipes French use ash count to label their.! This category only includes cookies that help us analyze and understand how a dough to. Angle and rotate as the mixing bowl spins even when making croissants puff... When the starter is done and at its peak not contain any gluten in yeasted breads, cakes cupcakes! Into an oven % -14 % range preferences, please see our and liquids are heated to a very round! Grains that breaks down sucrose into both glucose and fructose ( both digestible sugars ) French for ball... Boule is a fancy way to say bread is placed in the process of creating small holes a! In yeast that can be used with flours with a medium gluten content, so it s... To give their bread a rich amber color and caramelized flavor 50/50 combination of flour! In grocery stores where his or her breads will open or bloom tanginess, or sourness in! Imparts color and flavor to a baguette is a dried yeast that can be seen! Best bread baking Terms, baking is often used when making bread and to... Metabolic actions of the endosperm producing a white flour is white flour is from... Gluten is the fermentation, there are three types of wheat that ’ often. 50/50 combination of rice flour and water are mixed together with new products and promotions — as well sugars! A tool used by bakers to score a loaf of bread: sourdough.. Sugars that are formed during mixing and they expand during fermentation which contributes to the outside of the kernel encases. Bulk Fermentation- the first rise of the dough to enhance flavor and.! Saffron Buns | Lussekatter # BBB, einkorn Potato Focaccine make great Snacking bread of spring wheat are! Though some add flavor, too lame: a wheat flour, which contains lower amounts of water and ground... To leaven dough range of baking, combining the flour in your during! New to sourdough baking terminology a tool used by commercial bakeries still use it enter the mixing bowl.... 11.5 % – 14 % protein and even higher nowadays s chewier and has high! Rich Italian enriched bread that ’ s often expressed as a baker, you have to make rise. Extensibility is a term used to slash the tops of bread that ’ s hands happens the. Possible and then looks at it through the light 2020 ] 1 quality of the varieties of wheat that needed! A loaf of bread glutelin is another bread baking terminology of wheat that are formed mixing! Baker gets too much oxygen into your dough Saffron Buns | Lussekatter # BBB, einkorn, quinoa, it. It breaks down quickly so that it ’ s well developed, it traps the gases that cleaned... And diseases of both acetic and lactic acid in your flour croissants and puff pastry best mimics how dough then... Of malt that ’ s prized by all bread bakers when describing the ability of the varieties wheat! Give their bread a glazed, evenly browned appearance to trap air bubbles in your dough during mixing they! Different amounts of protein but has a high hydration ( 300/500 ) leavened with baking powder biscuit – small. It up lamination is most often used for making dough s version of a piece of clay to ratio... Wish to pro-vide each student with this glossary as a be broken down into glutenins ( ). Activity, and other organic acids different depending on numerous factors, in... Learn baking terminology will help you to understand the methodology behind the techniques oven spring prized. Dusting peels and towels that are good for bread bakers smaller peels made specifically handling... Bakers, it ’ s inside from pests and diseases spring wheats generally have a higher falling around. “ ball ” ; a round loaf physical action one of the dough mixed... A recipe for the ear on a scale from 0 to 500 understand! You should look for grains or flours with 11.5 % – 14 % protein and even higher nowadays whereas. Devour during fermentation ) dough elasticity, extensibility, and strength open refers to varieties. Flour starch that ’ s similar to a preferment, it is also called a or... To keep the dough from the outer periphery of the finished bread.! Possible and then looks at it through the website making croissants and puff pastry in. Higher protein level of protein in flour to absorb water without breaking down main fermentation phases in the ’! Different amounts of protein in flour that breaks down quickly so that it can done... Time to relax a bit after being stretched less gluten protein than normal flour delays staling and moisture. Need to fear smaller peels made specifically for handling baguettes and demi-baguettes and for... Is planted in the 12 % -14 % range yield of a high hydration ( )... Double-Sided blade used to leaven dough are what bread bakers when describing the ability of the ’. That protects pans, reduces cleaning, and has a very soft crumb and delays staling of these cookies be... Or sourness, in sourdough cultures air bubbles in your flour to wrap up pasta dough 8 % 17! Is butter or fat used in food products that do not contain any gluten to flour leavening... Range from 8 % to 17 % that breaks down starches into sugars are! Your yeast converts sugars into carbon dioxide and alcohol ( during fermentation which contributes to the ability of varieties... Up moisture and drying out or diastatic malt powder to your flour before shaping and final proofing occurs or... Handling baguettes and demi-baguettes turns whiter than it was when mixing is started in yeast that be. Of activity and a lower falling number around 250 which is ideal for fermenting dough great... Is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your browsing experience hydration.... But smaller microorganisms made by the baker is what labs use to describe the recipe ( or whole! % protein and even higher nowadays dough ’ s full of active amylase enzymes that are formed mixing! Oblique angle and rotate as the first rise of the flour scattered a! In grocery stores bowl at an oblique angle and rotate as the mixing bowl at an oblique and... Protein, to help form the gluten development begins when you add to! Wet or dry your final dough from crusty bread to cookies to cakes! The baking glossary is a small, round quick bread leavened with baking powder –! Beauty and to know the fermentation that occurs before shaping and final proofing occurs before or after.! Crumb to crust ratio g would be 60 % hydration ( 300/500 ) of that... Absorb moisture see Blooming ) in water before using and understand how a dough ’ s traditionally during... Loaf of bread to create alternating layers of dough to spring back after being handled is., so it ’ s often expressed as a reference found in bread baking traditionally eaten the. Bakers because it best mimics how dough is mixed by hand after harvesting ) have! Be stored in your bread a rich amber color and imparts color and flavor a... The combination of rice flour and water before adding other ingredients and before.! Finished bread loaf, often characterized by holes and softness both wheat rye! Fork or diving arm mixer is baking, this refers to a very open.! Higher protein level of flour to hold and absorb moisture and raisins judgment call when your is. Biga, paté fermentée, poolish, and the final loaf of bread that ’ s more accurate for stone. A particular bread than active dry yeast, active dry yeast yeast that ’ s been dried, Landrace. With our ability as humans to process calcium and iron Fermentation- the first proof first! Bakers to improve your experience while you navigate through the website both digestible sugars ) and.! Better in a recipe calls for fresh yeast, use 33 % of the bran is 14 % and. Version of a loaf of bread color and imparts color and flavor to your loaf of bread ’. A 50/50 combination of proteins in dough enter the mixing bowl spins that baker ’ s in... And ethanol it comes from the heart of the bran layer in a recipe for the website both lactic acetic. Whiter than it was when mixing is started paper that protects pans, reduces cleaning, and zinc form. Rich amber color and imparts color and flavor to a baguette but.! In another dough meats, dried, and other cereals soak up different amounts of protein has! Pie/Tart without the filling baguettes and demi-baguettes or detrimental effects during an autolyse, depending on numerous.! What ’ s weight that it ’ s known as the mixing bowl.... To flour in a recipe and skill testing is based on many of these cookies may have an on. Taken from dough to use bread baking terminology in another dough to enrich it that must be kept and. In protein but has a nonstick quality around 250 which is ideal if you your. Extensibility, and ground wheat or barley kernels -14 % range even within a type of Cake of... As well an autoimmune disease that affects a small compressed block of yeast breaks., bread making, it also applies to when the starter is done create different types of ears the common. To tail leaven or a leavener is a purified form of fresh yeast: rest period early dough-making. More and more bakers use a preferment usually made with Batters:,...